12 Genres

12 GENRES:

1. Procedure
2. Recount
3. Narrative
4. Description
5. News Item
6. Report
7. Analytical Exposition
8. Spoof
9. Hortatory Exposition
10. Explanation
11. Discussion
12. Review

PROCEDURE

Social function: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.
Text organization:
1. Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction)
2. Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
3. Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)
Language features :
 Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..)
 Use of action verbs (turn, put)
 Use of connectives(first, then, finally)

RECOUNT

Social function: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)
Language features:
 Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she)
 Use of action verbs in past (went, studied)
 Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo)
 Use of adverbial phrases
 Use of adjectives

NARRATIVE

Social function: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)
Language features:
1. Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2. Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago)
3. Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village)
4. Use of action verbs ( walked, slept)
5. Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)

DESCRIPTION

Social Function: To describe a particular person, place or thing.
Generic Structure:
1. Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
2. Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)
Language features:
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of attributive and identifying processes
 Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups.
 Use of the Simple Present Tense

NEWS ITEM

Social function: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic structure:
1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)
Language features:
 Information on the use of head lines.
 Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
 Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
 Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
 Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

REPORT

Social function: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.
Text organization:
1. General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
2. Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).
Language features:
 Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer)
 Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg)
 Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun)
 Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen)
 Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position.)
2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence).
3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented).
Language features:
 Emotive words such as : alarmed, worried.
 Words that qualify statements such as: usual probably
 Words that link arguments such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore.
 Usually present tense
 Compound and complex sentences

SPOOF

Social function: To tell an event with a humorous twist.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)
Language features:
 Use of connectives (first, then, finally)
 Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago)
 Use of simple past tense (he walked away from the village)

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something should or should not be the case.
Generic structure:
1. Thesis ( stating an issue of concern)
2. Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation)
3. Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen)
Language features:
 Emotive words: alarmed, worried
 Words that qualify statements: usual probably
 Words that link arguments: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore
 Usually present tense
 Compound and complex sentences
 Modal auxiliary: can, may, should, must

EXPLANATION
Social function: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
Generic structure:
1. A general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
3. Closing
Language features:
 Focus on generic, non-human participants.
 Use mainly of general and abstract nouns, action verbs, simple present tense, passive voice, conjunction of time and cause, noun phrases, complex sentences, and technical language.

DISCUSSION
Social function: To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (“for” points “against” points)
Generic structure:
1. Opening statement presenting the issue
2. Arguments or evidence for different points of view ( pros and cons)
3. Concluding recommendation.
Language features:
 Use of general nouns: alcohol, abortion, smoking, etc.
 Use of relating verbs: is, are, etc.
 Use of thinking verbs: think, feel, hope believe, etc.
 Use of additive connectives: addition, furthermore, besides, etc.
 Use of contrastive connectives: although, even, if, nevertheless, etc.
 Use of causal connectives: because, because of, etc.
 Use of modal auxiliary: must, should, etc.
 Use of adverbial manner: hopefully.

REVIEW
Social function: To critique an art work or event for a public audience.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.
Language features:
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of adjectives
 Use of long and complex clauses
 Use of metaphor
Reviews are used to summarize, analyze and respond to art works. They may include: movie, TV shows, books, plays, concerts, etc.

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11 comments on “12 Genres

  1. Thank u so much 4 ur posting!
    This give a very clear explanation about genre.
    And as a Suggestion.. You may add an example 4 each genre.

    Best regards

  2. Pingback: JENIS-JENIS TEXT « Miftaqulhuda's Blog

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