Narrative

NARRATIVE

Dear all…
Diantara 12 jenis teks yang dipelajari di tingkat menengah atas, Teks Narrative adalah jenis teks yang paling sering dipelajari. Setiap semester kalian pasti mendapatkan pelajaran tentang teks yang satu ini.
Teks Narrative kita kenal juga sebagai teks naratif dalam bahasa Indonesia. Hanya saja dalam bahasa Inggris, teks Narrative memiliki lingkup yang lebih sempit. Seperti kita tahu yang namanya teks naratif yang ada dalam pelajaran bahasa Indonesia itu adalah teks tentang cerita, baik itu cerita tentang pengalaman seseorang, cerita lucu, dongeng, mitos, legenda, fable, dll. Namun dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris contoh teks tersebut dibagi dalam Teks Narrative, Spoof, dan Recount. Misalnya saja kalau teks tentang pengalaman seseorang dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris disebut Recount, teks cerita yang lucu disebut Spoof. Nah.. kalau Narrative adalah teks yang berupa dongeng, mitos, legenda, fable, dll.
Namanya juga narrative atau cerita, teks Narrative adalah teks yang menceritakan sebuah kisah yang sudah terjadi di masa lampau. Makanya kata kerja yang digunakan menggunakan bentuk Past Form. Misalnya:
Long time ago, there lived a woman near the river.
Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up.

Example:
Text *1 (Fabel)
A group of frogs were travelling through the woods, and two of them fell into a deep pit. When the other frogs saw how deep the pit was, they told the two frogs that they were as good as dead. The two frogs ignored the comments and tried to jump up out of the pit with all their might. The other frogs kept telling them to stop, that they were as good as dead.
Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up. He fell down and died.
The other frog continued to jump as hard as he could. Once again, the crowd of frogs yelled at him to stop the pain and just die. He jumped even harder and finally made it out.
When he got out, the other frogs said, “Did you not hear us?” The frog explained to them that he was deaf. He thought they were encouraging him the entire time.

Note: Fabel menceritakan kisah yang diperankan oleh hewan di mana kita bisa mendapatkan pesan moral dalam cerita tersebut yaitu ‘There is power of life and death in the tongue’.

Text *2 (Myth)
Once upon a time in the heavens the Batara Guru commanded all the gods and goddesses to contribute their power in order to build a new palace. Anybody who disobeyed this commandment would lose his or her head.
Upon hearing the Batara Guru’’s commandment, one of the gods, Anta, was very anxious. He didn’t have arms or legs and he wasn’t sure how he could possibly do the job. Anta was shaped as a snake and he couldn’t work. He sought advice from one of his friends but unfortunately his friend was also confused by Anta’s bad luck. Anta became very upset and cried.
As he was crying three teardrops fell to the ground. Amazingly, after touching the ground those teardrops became three eggs. His friend advised him to offer those eggs to the Batara Guru hoping that he would give a fair judgement.
With the three eggs in his mouth Anta went to the Batara Guru’s palace. On the way there he was approached by a black bird who asked him a question. He couldn’t answer because of the eggs in his mouth but the bird thought that Anta was being arrogant. It became furious and began to attack Anta and as a result one egg was shattered. Anta quickly tried to hide in the bushes but the bird was waiting for him.
The second attack left Anta with only one egg to offer to the Batara Guru.
Finally he arrived at the palace and offered his teardrop (in the shape of an egg) to the Batara Guru. The offer was accepted and the Batara Guru asked him to nest the egg until it hatched. Miraculously the egg hatched into a very beautiful girl. He gave the baby girl to the Batara Guru and his wife.
Nyi Pohi Sanghian Sri was her name and she grew up into a beautiful princess becoming more and more beautiful as the days passed by. As her beauty grew every man who saw her became attracted to her. Even her stepfather the Batara Guru started to feel an attraction toward her.
Seeing the Batara Guru’s new attitude toward Nyi Pohaci, all the gods became so worried about the situation that they conspired to separate Nyi Pohaci and the Batara Guru.
To keep the peace in the heavens and to maintain Nyi Pohaci’s good name, all the gods planned for her death. She was poisoned and her body buried on earth in a hidden place. But the graveyard was to hold a strange sign, for at the time of her burial, up grew a very useful plant that would forever benefit all human beings.
From her eyes grew the plant that is called padi (rice paddy).

Note: Mitos adalah teks yang menceritakan tentang terjadinya alam semesta, dunia, kisah para dewa, dll. Mitos di Indonesia biasanya menceritakan tentang terjadinya alam semesta, terjadinya susunan para dewa, terjadinya manusia pertama, dunia dewata, dan terjadinya makanan pokok. Mengenai mitos terjadinya padi, dikenal adanya Dewi Sri yang dianggap sebagai dewi padi orang Jawa.

Text *3 (Legend)
THE LEGEND OF CRYING STONES
A long long time ago in west Sumatra, Indonesia there was a fisherman and his wife who lived in a village by the sea. They had only one son. His name was Malin Kundang. They lived a simple life because as a fisherman the husband did not earn much money. Life got harder for Malin and his mother when his father did not return from the sea. Perhaps a storm had swollen his boat or maybe a big fish attacked him. Day by day passed and they kept waiting for him. But Malin’s father never returned. So little Malin had to help her mother sold cookies in a local market.
One day there was a big ship came to the beach of their village. It was a merchant ship. Everybody came to see it including Malin. He was very impressed by what he saw. Hoping to change his life he applied for a job and he was lucky. He was recruited by the ship owner. Then Malin left his mother and his village.
Many years gone by without any news from Malin. Malin’s mother missed him so much. Everyday she looked at the sea, hoping to see Malin came home. She always prayed to God that Malin become a successful merchant. Then God heard her pray.
On a beautiful day there was a big ship came to the beach. Many people came there to see it. Malin’s mother was expectant. She was sure that it was Malin’s ship. So she hurriedly came to the beach. When she was there she asked someone that she wanted to see the owner of the ship. Then a lovely lady met her. She wore a luxurious dress and jewellry. She was Malin’s wife.
‘Is Malin Kundang here?’
“Do you know Malin?”
‘Yes, of course I know him, he’s my son!’
‘But Malin told me he had no mother. She passed away a long time ago’.
Malin’s mother was very surprised to hear her answer. Then Malin came. Her wife asked him.
‘This poor woman said that you are his son’
Malin Kundang who had became a rich merchant and had a wife from a rich family was ashame with his mother who looked poor. He denied his humble background. So when her mother hugged him he repelled her.
‘Malin, my son, I miss you so much’.
‘Who are you? I am not your son’.
Malin’s mother was was crying. She was really irritated. Her heart was deeply hurt. Then she prayed to God. And she cursed Malin.
Suddenly there was a storm. The sea was raging. Big wave came and Malin’s ship was rushed ashore and destroyed. And Malin suddenly changed into a stone statue. Today people can see Malin’s statue in Teluk Bayur beach in west Sumatra. When there is a storm or rain people often hear someone’s crying. They believe it is Malin’s cry.

Note: Legenda adalah cerita yang dipercaya oleh sebagian masyarakat benar-benar terjadi.
legenda adalah dongeng tentang hal-hal yang berdasarkan sejarah yang mengandung sesuatu hal yang ajaib atau kejadian yang menandakan kesaktian.

Conclusion:
The social function of Narrative is to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
There are three kinds of Generic Structure:
1. Orientation (who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication (a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution (provide solution to the problem)
Language features:
1. Use of noun phrases (a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2. Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (In the garden, two days ago)
3. Use of simple past tense (He walked away from the village)
4. Use of action verbs (walked, slept)
5. Use of adjectives phrases (long black hair)

News Item

NEWS ITEM text adalah jenis teks yang menceritakan mengenai suatu kejadian. Teks listening news item banyak kita temui di radio dalam acara berita tentunya dan juga untuk teks reading news item kita bisa membacanya di koran. Selain itu jika kita sering menonton program berita di televisi, artinya kita juga sedang menonton teks news item.
News yang artinya berita, jenis teks ini memang bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi baik kepada pendengar, pembaca maupun penonton. Adapun susunan dari jenis teks ini adalah:
1. Newsworthy event (inti berita)
2. Background event (latar belakang berita)
3. Sources (sumber informasi)
Teks News Item adalah teks yang cukup mudah untuk dibedakan, contohnya:

Seven people were killed in a collision between a bus, a car and a truck on Jalan Sultan at 10:35 p.m. last night. The dead were all passengers of the car. The police believed the car had been trying to overtake the bus when it was struck by a truck coming from the opposite direction. The driver of the car might not be using his lights, as the truck driver said he did not see the car approaching.
The police said the car should not have tried to pass the bus, since overtaking is not allowed on Jalan Sultan. In addition, the police reported that the car, a small Japanese car, should not have been carrying more than five people. If the passengers had brought their identity cards, the police would have identified the names of the victims easily.

Dari teks tersebut di atas, disebutkan dalam paragraf pertama bahwa ada kecelakaan yang terjadi, yang merupakan inti berita. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyebab kecelakaan, yaitu karena “the car should not have tried to pass the bus, since overtaking is not allowed on Jalan Sultan”. Ciri lainnya adalah adanya sumber “The police said the car should not …”.

Contoh kedua:
Jakarta (JP). The number of people injured in the weekend earthquake in the Central Sulawesi capital of Palu reached 26. The earthquake, measuring 5,8 in the opened Ritcher Scale, also damaged or destroyed hundreds of buildings. So far no deaths have been reported.
“Only 3 of the 26 injured are still being treated at a government clinic. In the Sausu Trans village, the rest have returned home,” Mohammad Haerollah, an official of the Central Sulawesi Office of the Ministry of Social Services, told the Jakarta Post yesterday.
Officials at the meteorology and geophysics office in Palu said earlier that the epicenter was in the Gulf of Tomini, 32 kilometers east of Palu, at a depth of 32 kilometers. The office recorded 396 tremors between 5.30 p.m on Saturday and 12.00 a.m on Sunday. However, locals felt 47 of the tremors.
Antara News Agency reported on Saturday that most of the casualties were adults, injured by collapsing structures. The agency also said, that victims were mainly residents of the Sausu, Suli, Torono, and Malakosa villages.

Kalau kita analisa inti berita dari teks kedua adalah “The number of people injured in the weekend earthquake in the Central Sulawesi capital of Palu reached 26″. Latar belakangnya adalah “most of the casualties were adults, injured by collapsing structures” dan sumber beritanya adalah ” Officials at the meteorology and geophysics office in Palu said” “Antara News Agency reported”.

Genre: News Item
Social function: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic structure:
1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)
Language features:
 Information on the use of head lines.
 Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
 Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
 Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
 Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

Nah.. Kalian pasti sudah mengerti kan..

Pendekatan Berbasis Teks (A text-based Approach)

Implementasi Pendekatan Berbasis Teks (A text-based Approach)
Dalam Pengajaran Jenis-jenis Teks Di Tingkat SMA

Kebutuhan untuk berkomunikasi menggunakan bahasa Inggris dengan baik telah menjamur di seluruh dunia. Banyak orang tua yang menginginkan anak-anak mereka mendapatkan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang terbaik. Seperti kita ketahui bersama bahwa ada banyak cara untuk belajar bahasa Inggris antara lain melalui pendidikan formal, belajar di luar negeri, media, dan internet. Bahasa Inggris adalah salah satu pelajaran yang dimulai dari tingkat dasar, bahkan sebagian sekolah mengajarkan mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris mulai tingkat taman kanak-kanak. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya suatu metodologi pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan tuntutan zaman.
Communicative Approach atau Communicative Language Teaching mulai dikenal pada tahun 1970. Metode ini berisi tentang tujuan mengajar bahasa, mengetahui bagaimana siswa belajar bahasa, mengetahui kegiatan-kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas, serta mengetahui peranan guru dan siswa di dalam kelas. Communicative Approach adalah menggunakan bahasa untuk berkomunikasi dengan penuh arti, mengetahui bagaimana menggunakan bahasa untuk berbagai tujuan dan fungsi, mengetahui bagaimana menggunakan bahasa formal dan informal, mengetahui jenis-jenis teks yang digunakan, mampu berkomunikasi meskipun siswa hanya memilki pengetahuan yang tebatas.
Belajar bahasa adalah suatu proses dari kebiasaan. Kemampuan berbahasa Inggris terbentuk dari kebiasaan siswa menghasilkan kalimat-kalimat yang baik dan tidak membuat kesalahan yang berulang-ulang. Kesalahan dapat dihindari melalui latihan yang berulang-ulang dan adanya kesempatan untuk menghasilkan bahasa, baik secara tulisan maupun lisan. Dalam Communicative Approach siswa berlatih melaui kegiatan-kegiatan seperti menghafal dialog dan drilling, bermain peran, dan kegiatan berkelompok. Jika dilihat dari kegiatan tersebut tentu saja siswa yang satu harus berinteraksi dengan siswa lain sehingga terjalin adanya komunikasi. Siswa harus ikut berpartisipasi dalam kegiatan di dalam kelas dan lebih mengutamakan sistem koperatif dibandingkan individu. Siswa berlatih mendengarkan dan merespon percakapan temannya. Mereka diharapkan akan memiliki kemampuan mendengarkan yang lebih baik. Sementara guru memiliki peranan sebagai fasilitator dan monitor, dari pada menjadi model.
Dengan menggunakan Communicative Approach tentu ada interaksi yang bermakna antar siswa karena saat seorang siswa menggunakan bahasa selalu ada respon dari siswa lain yang mendengarkannya. Siswa juga mencoba merangkai kata-kata untuk mengatakan sesuatu sehingga mereka akan menemukan kata-kata baru yang bisa mereka kembangkan sendiri. Misalnya saat mereka ingin menyuruh orang meminta untuk dibukakan pintu mereka akan berkata ”Open the door.” atau ”Could you open the door for me.” atau ”Please to opens the door.” Tentu masih banyak variasi kata yang lainnya, selama maknanya masih sama dan orang yang diajak bicara mengerti maksud si penutur. Salah satu tujuan Communicative Approach adalah mengembangkan kelancaran dalam menggunakan bahasa. Kelancaran siswa diperoleh karena adanya interaksi natural yang bermakna dan latihan berkomunikasi yang dikembangkan melalui kegiatan di dalam kelas.
Materi bahasa Inggris tingkat SMA menekankan pemahaman siswa akan genres (jenis-jenis teks). Ada dua belas jenis teks yang harus dipelajari siswa SMA dari kelas X sampai kelas XII. Siswa diharapkan menguasai semua jenis teks tersebut dan dapat mengaplikasikannya di dalam kehidupannya. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut kita memerlukan strategi mengajar yang tepat. Salah satunya adalah Text-based instruction.
Text-based instruction juga dikenal sebagai genre-based approach merupakan suatu kompetensi dalam berkomunikasi yang menguasai berbagai jenis teks. Teks tersebut menggunakan tema, struktur bahasa dan konteks tertentu. Dalam satu hari seorang pembicara dapat menggunakan bahasa lisan dalam tema dan konteks yang berbeda, misalnya:
1. Percakapan dengan orangtua.
2. Percakapan dengan dokter mengenai kesehatan.
3. Percakapan dengan orang yang tidak dikenal di jalan.
4. Percakapan melalui telepon untuk bertemu dengan teman.
Setiap penggunaan bahasa dalam konteks di atas merupakan satu teks mulai dari awal, tengah dan akhir percakapan yang terdiri dari suatu susunan tertentu yang dilengkapi dengan tata bahasa dan kosa kata. Kemampuan siswa untuk berkomunikasi adalah memiliki kemampuan untuk menggunakan berbagai jenis teks yang berbeda baik lisan maupun tulisan dalam konteks tertentu.

Berdasarkan Feez dan Joyce (1998), Text-based instruction berdasarkan pendekatan mengajar bahasa adalah:
1. Mengajar secara eksplisit tentang struktur dan tata bahasa dari teks tertulis dan lisan
2. Menggabungkan teks tertulis dan lisan ke arah konteks budaya.
3. Mendesain unit kerja yang menitikberatkan pada kemampuan mengembangkan yang berhubungan dengan semua teks.
4. Menyiapkan siswa dengan latihan yang terarah dimana mereka mengembangkan kemampuan berbahasa yang bermakna dan komunikatif melalui teks.
Berdasarkan paparan di atas siswa harus menguasai penggunaan dari jenis-jenis teks yang sering digunakan dalam konteks tertentu. Biasanya teks-teks ini terdapat pada tingkat sekolah dasar, menengah, universitas, kantor, maupun pada saat bersosialisasi di lingkungan sekitar.

Seperti namanya Text-based instruction, yaitu berdasarkan jenis-jenis teks yang dapat diidentifikasi melalui analisis kebutuhan dan melalui analisis bahasa yang digunakan dalam latar yang berbeda-beda. Bagaimanapun juga, dalam silabus biasanya memilki komponen lain selain teks yaitu tata bahasa, kosa kata, topik dan fungsi. Memang ada yang mengitegrasikan keempat kemampuan siswa (mendengarkan, berbicara, membaca, dan menulis) dengan tata bahasa melalui penguasaaan teks dari pada mengajarkannya secara terpisah.
Jenis-jenis teks yang dipelajari yaitu:
1. Procedure (procedure, explanation)
2. Information teks (description, report, news item, review)
3. Story teks (narrative, spoof, recount)
4. Persuasive teks (analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, discussion)

Selain mengajarkan teks, tata bahasa juga penting untuk dipelajari, tentu saja melalui model teks yang diajarkan. Dalam mengajarkan recount, perlu menyisipkan materi pronouns, past tense, verbs and verb phrase, dan lain-lain. Dalam teks decriptive, siswa juga perlu belajar kalimat pasif, pola kalimat present tense, dan lain-lain.
Text-based instruction memiliki lima tahapan penting yang harus dilalui oleh siswa. Tahapan-tahapan tersebut yang perlu diajarkan adalah Building the context, Modelling and deconstructing, Joint construction of the text, Independent construction of the text, dan Linking to related text.
1. Building the context
Tahapan pertama dalam text-based dimulai dari memperkenalkan konteks sosial dari teks yang dipelajari. Kemudian mengeksplorasi ciri-ciri dari konteks budaya umum dari teks yang dipelajari serta mempelajari tujuan dari teks tersebut. Selanjutnya adalah dengan mengamati konteks dan situasi yang digunakan. Misalnya dalam teks exposition, siswa harus bisa memahami peran dan hubungan antara orang-orang yang berdialog apakah antar teman, editor dengan pembaca, guru dengan siswa, dan sebagainya. Siswa juga harus memahami media yang digunakan apakah percakapan tatap muka langsung, atau percakapan melalui telepon.
Kegiatan yang dilakukan di dalam kelas adalah:
1. Mempresentasikan konteks. Untuk menyajikan suatu konteks, bisa menggunakan berbagai media antara lain melalui gambar, benda nyata, field-trip, kunjungan, nara sumber dan sebagainya.
2. Membangun tujuan sosial. Untuk mengetahui tujuan sosial bisa melalui diskusi, survey, dan yang lainnya.
3. Membanding dua kebudayaan. Membandingkan penggunaan teks antara dua kebudayaan berbeda, yaitu kebudayaan kita dengan kebudayaan penutur asli.
4. Membandingkan model teks dengan teks yang lainnya. Contohnya membandingkan percakapan antara teman dekat, teman kerja, atau orang asing.

2. Modelling and deconstructing
Dalam tahap yang kedua, siswa mengamati pola dan ciri-ciri dari teks yang diajarkan. Misalnya dalam teks spoof menggunakan frase kata keterangan, pola kalimat masa lampau, dan lain-lain. Teks news item menggunakan pola kalimat pasif dan menggunakan kalimat langsung.
Kemudian siswa membandingkan model dengan contoh teks yang lain. Teks spoof memiliki beberapa persamaan dengan teks recount, yaitu memiliki struktur orientation dan events. Teks descriptive memiliki persamaan dengan teks report, yaitu memiliki struktur description.

3. Joint construction of the text
Dalam tahapan ini, siswa mulai memahami keseluruhan teks. Guru secara perlahan mulai mengarahkan siswa agar mandiri sehingga siswa menguasai model teks yang diajarkan.
Kegiatan yang dapat dilakukan di dalam kelas antara lain mendiskusikan jenis teks, melengkapi teks rumpang, membuat kerangka teks, melakukan penilaian sendiri atau penilaian antar teman sebaya, dan bermain teka-teki.

4. Independent construction of the text
Setelah melalui tahapan kesatu sampai tahapan ketiga, siswa telah memiliki pengetahuan mengenai model teks yang diajarkan. Siswa mulai memiliki kemampuan yang cukup untuk membuat teks yang mirip dengan model teks yang diajarkan. Dalam tahapan ini, siswa mulai mandiri dalam mengerjakan teks dan peran guru hanya mengamati siswa untuk penilaian.
Kegiatan yang dapat dilakukan dalam tahapan ini antara lain:
1. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan mendengarkan, siswa merespon teks lisan, menggaris bawahi teks, menjawab pertanyaan, dan lain-lain.
2. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan mendengarkan dan berbicara, siswa bermain peran, melakukan dialog berpasangan atau berkelompok
3. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara, siswa melakukan presentasi di depan kelas
4. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan membaca, siswa merespon teks tertulis, menggaris bawahi teks, menjawab pertanyaan, dan lain-lain.
5. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan menulis, siswa membuat draft dan menulis teks secara keseluruhan

5. Linking to related text
Dalam tahapan ini siswa mengamati apa yang mereka sudah pelajari kemudian dihubungkan dengan teks lainnya yang sama atau serupa konteksnya. Siswa membandingkan penggunaan dari jenis-jenis teks yang dipelajari baik dalam lingkungan yang sama maupun yang berbeda. Melakukan roleplay dan mengamati apa yang terjadi jika teks yang sama digunakan oleh orang yang memilki hubungan dan peran berbeda.
Siswa membandingkan perbedaan bahasa lisan dan tulisan. Kemudian siswa mengamati apakah ciri-ciri kebahasaan yang digunakan dalam teks yang dipelajari sama dengan jenis teks yang lainnya.

Secara sederhana, berikut ini adalah contoh aplikasi kegiatan-kegiatan yang dapat dilakukan di dalam kelas menggunakan pendekatan berbasis teks dalam materi teks report. Tahap-tahap yang dilakukan adalah sebagai berikut:
Building the context
1. Guru memberikan contoh model teks report menggunakan gambar, misalnya whale.
2. Siswa mempelajari tujuan dari teks report, yaitu untuk mendeskripsikan sesuatu secara umum melalui penelitian ilmiah.
3. Siswa mempelajari konteks teks report, yaitu siswa dapat menemukan teks dalam buku-buku ilmiah, film dokumenter, dan sebagainya.
4. Siswa membandingkan model teks report dengan teks yang lainnya. Misalnya membandingkan teks ”whales” dan ”spiders”.

Modelling and deconstructing
1. Siswa mempelajari struktur atau pola dari teks report, yaitu general classification dan description.
2. Siswa mempelajari ciri-ciri dari teks report, yaitu menggunakan pola kalimat present tense untuk menceritakan fakta atau kebiasaan di masa sekarang. Selain itu juga teks ini menggunakan relating verbs misalnya “whales are sea living mammals.”
3. Siswa membandingkan model teks report dengan teks yang lainnya. Misalnya membandingkan teks lisan ”whale” dengan teks tertulis ”snakes”.

Joint construction of the text
1. gambar hewan yang berbeda untuk setiap pasang. Tanpa melihat kartu temannya, siswa saling membelakangi kemudian saling bertanya mengenai ciri-ciri gambar hewan yang sedang dipegang oleh temannya.
2. Siswa duduk bertiga. Guru memberikan tiga teks lisan yang berbeda untuk setiap siswa. Setiap siswa mencatat informasi yang diperdengarkan. Kemudian siswa menyampaikan informasi yang didengarnya kepada dua teman yang lainnya yang mencatat informasi yang didengarnya. Siswa membandingkan informasi yang didapat dengan informasi dari temannya.

4. Independent construction of the text
1. Siswa menjawab pertanyaan berdasarkan teks yang diperdengarkan.
2. Siswa menjawab pertanyaan berdasarkan teks yang dibaca.
3. Siswa membuat draft dan menulis teks report.
4. Siswa mempresentasikan teks yang telah dibuatnya di depan kelas.

Linking to related text.
1. Membandingkan teks report dengan teks descriptive yang memiliki persamaan, yaitu memiliki persamaan struktur kedua “description”. Namun memiliki perbedaan struktur pertama dari teks report adalah general classification, sementara struktur pertama dari teks descriptive adalah identification.
2. Siswa bermain peran: Salah satu siswa menjadi seorang ilmuwan, siswa yang lain menjadi wartawan. Mereka melakukan wawancara mengenai hewan “dolphin”. Peran lainnya adalah salah satu siswa menjadi orangtua, siswa yang lain menjadi anaknya. Mereka berdialog karena si anak ingin tahu tentang “computer”. Selesai bermain peran mereka membandingkan apa yang terjadi jika mereka memainkan dua peran yang berbeda peran dan hubungannya.

Seperti yang sudah dibahas sebelumnya, pendekatan ini memfokuskan pada hasil pembelajaran dibandingkan dengan prosesnya. Salah satu kelemahannya adalah kurang menekankan kreatifitas siswa secara individu dan ekspresi personalnya. Penggunaan metode ini juga dapat membuat siswa jenuh karena pendekatan ini menekankan pengulangan-pengulangan, seperti yang sudah dijelaskan bahwa ada lima tahapan yang dilalui siswa untuk mempelajari satu jenis teks.

By Ely Wulandari Maulana Posted in Teori

Recount Text…

Dear students…

Have you ever been to Bali? How did you go there? How long did you stay there? What did you do there? Explain clearly.

Well, to tell your experience is the purpose of recount. Jadi, kalau kalian ingin menceritakan pengalaman kalian kalian bisa menggunakan teks recount. Recount adalah jenis teks yang menceritakan pengalaman seseorang, selain itu juga teks yang menceritakan biografi seseorang secara detail.
Dalam recount ada tiga bagian penting. Yang pertama adalah Orientation, yaitu pendahuluan yang berupa pengenalan tokoh. Biasanya berupa who, when, and where (siapa, kapan, dan kapan suatu peristiwa terjadi. Yang kedua adalah event, yaitu kejadian atau peristiwa yang terjadi secara berurutan. Dan yang terkahir adalah Re-orientation, yaitu menjelaskan kesimpulan dari pengalaman yang diceritakan, apakah pengalaman tersebut menyedihkan, membahagiakan, atau mungkin menakutkan.

Contoh:

My Day at the Beach

(Orientaion)
Last week my friend and I were bored after three weeks of holidays, so we rode our bikes to Smith Beach, which is only five kilometres from where I live. When we arrived at the beach, we were surprised to see there was hardly anyone there. After having a quick dip in the ocean, which was really cold, we realized one reason there were not many people there. It was also quite windy.

(Events)
After we bought some hot chips at the takeaway store nearby, we rode our bikes down the beach for a while, on the hard, damp part of the sand. We had the wind behind us and, before we knew it, we were many miles down the beach. Before we made the long trip back, we decided to paddle our feet in the water for a while, and then sit down for a rest. While we were sitting on the beach, just chatting, it suddenly dawned on us that all the way back, we would be riding into the strong wind.

(Re-orientation)
When we finally made it back home, we were both totally exhausted! But we learned some good lessons that day.

12 Genres

12 GENRES:

1. Procedure
2. Recount
3. Narrative
4. Description
5. News Item
6. Report
7. Analytical Exposition
8. Spoof
9. Hortatory Exposition
10. Explanation
11. Discussion
12. Review

PROCEDURE

Social function: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.
Text organization:
1. Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction)
2. Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
3. Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)
Language features :
 Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..)
 Use of action verbs (turn, put)
 Use of connectives(first, then, finally)

RECOUNT

Social function: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)
Language features:
 Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she)
 Use of action verbs in past (went, studied)
 Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo)
 Use of adverbial phrases
 Use of adjectives

NARRATIVE

Social function: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)
Language features:
1. Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2. Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago)
3. Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village)
4. Use of action verbs ( walked, slept)
5. Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)

DESCRIPTION

Social Function: To describe a particular person, place or thing.
Generic Structure:
1. Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
2. Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)
Language features:
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of attributive and identifying processes
 Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups.
 Use of the Simple Present Tense

NEWS ITEM

Social function: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic structure:
1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)
Language features:
 Information on the use of head lines.
 Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
 Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
 Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
 Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

REPORT

Social function: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.
Text organization:
1. General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
2. Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).
Language features:
 Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer)
 Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg)
 Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun)
 Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen)
 Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position.)
2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence).
3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented).
Language features:
 Emotive words such as : alarmed, worried.
 Words that qualify statements such as: usual probably
 Words that link arguments such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore.
 Usually present tense
 Compound and complex sentences

SPOOF

Social function: To tell an event with a humorous twist.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)
Language features:
 Use of connectives (first, then, finally)
 Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago)
 Use of simple past tense (he walked away from the village)

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something should or should not be the case.
Generic structure:
1. Thesis ( stating an issue of concern)
2. Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation)
3. Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen)
Language features:
 Emotive words: alarmed, worried
 Words that qualify statements: usual probably
 Words that link arguments: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore
 Usually present tense
 Compound and complex sentences
 Modal auxiliary: can, may, should, must

EXPLANATION
Social function: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
Generic structure:
1. A general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
3. Closing
Language features:
 Focus on generic, non-human participants.
 Use mainly of general and abstract nouns, action verbs, simple present tense, passive voice, conjunction of time and cause, noun phrases, complex sentences, and technical language.

DISCUSSION
Social function: To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (“for” points “against” points)
Generic structure:
1. Opening statement presenting the issue
2. Arguments or evidence for different points of view ( pros and cons)
3. Concluding recommendation.
Language features:
 Use of general nouns: alcohol, abortion, smoking, etc.
 Use of relating verbs: is, are, etc.
 Use of thinking verbs: think, feel, hope believe, etc.
 Use of additive connectives: addition, furthermore, besides, etc.
 Use of contrastive connectives: although, even, if, nevertheless, etc.
 Use of causal connectives: because, because of, etc.
 Use of modal auxiliary: must, should, etc.
 Use of adverbial manner: hopefully.

REVIEW
Social function: To critique an art work or event for a public audience.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.
Language features:
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of adjectives
 Use of long and complex clauses
 Use of metaphor
Reviews are used to summarize, analyze and respond to art works. They may include: movie, TV shows, books, plays, concerts, etc.

Review Text…

My dearest students…

Salah satu teks yang mudah dibedakan dibandingkan teks lainnya adalah teks review. Dalam bahasa Indonesia kalian pasti pernah denger atau baca resensi buku, film, atau kaset. Nah, dalam bahasa Inggris kalian akan mempelajari juga resensi tersebut, cuma.. namanya diganti jadi review. Mudah kan? Yup.. review teks adalah teks yang membahas mengenai resensi baik buku, film, kaset, dan sebagainya.

Genre: Review
Social function: To criticize an art work or event for a public audience.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.

Contoh:
Cinta (Dian Sastrowardoyo) is a beautiful, smart and confident seventeen year old. Born in a loving family, surrounded by caring and supporting friends. Cinta seems to have everything in the world. She has four best friends, Milly (Sissy Pricillia), Karmen (Adinia Wirasti), Alya (Ladya Cheryl), and Maura(Titi Kamal) who always protect her. She’s also the object of Borne’s affection, the most eligible boyfriend at school.
But things are starting to change when Cinta meets Rangga (Nicholas saputra), a cool and arrogant boy whose presence is never taken into account at school. The unpredictable character of Rangga has disturbed Cinta. It creates a new and unfamiliar sensation which leads Cinta into a new and strange world. The next thing she knows, she has fallen in love with someone who has a very different character and comes from a very different world.
Bit by bit, Cinta starts to change. She becomes a new person, a stranger to her friends and even to herself. She doesn’t understand what has happened, let alone her friends.

Contoh lagi ya…
kali ini ada judgementnya.

The story to ‘Kung Fu Panda’ is nothing really new, but it is told so well as to actually pack an emotional punch. And it never comes off as laughable, which in lesser hands could easily have happened. Speaking of laughs, there are many to be had here as well. ‘Kung Fu Panda’ works on just about every level a family movie can. The cast features Jack Black as Po the Panda. The furious five, the most feared group of warriors in all of China, consists of Tigress (Angelina Jolie), Monkey (Jackie Chan), Mantis (Sth Roger), Viper (Lucy Liu), and Crane (David Cross). Their master is Shifu (Dustin Hoffman), a fur ball creature who is a legendary teacher of Kung Fu. Escaped from prison and on hi way to claim the Dragon Scroll, which will make him the all powerful Dragon Warrior, is the good gone bad Tai Lung (Ian McShane). But first, he’ll have to muscle his way around 400 pounds of panda to get to it.
‘Kung Fu Pnada’ is a damn good time at the movies. This was the movie that Dreamworks Animation so desperately needed after the disappointing ‘Shrek The Third’. With gorgeous animation, spectacular action, a great cast and dramatic weight of an Akira Kurosawa film, Kung Fu Panda is one of the favourite movie of the year.

Explanation Text

Dear students…

Masih ingat teks procedure kan? Itu loh, teks yang membahas tentang resep masakan, tata cara pengoperasian suatu benda, atau aturan permainan. Trus.. apa ada hubungan antara teks procedure dengan teks explanation. Jawabnya pasti ada. Persamaannya yaitu keduanya membahas tentang cara-cara membuat sesuatu. Trus… Apa dong bedanya? Perbedaannya teks procedure lebih simple. Namun teks explanation lebih ilmiah.

Genre: Explanation
Social function: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
Generic structure:
1. A general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
3. Closing

Contoh:
Bread
Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is not a complicated task. You must have an oven, water, sugar, salt, flour and yeast. The basic ingredient is flour comes from wheat. There are two kinds of flour which is soft, and the hard one.
Hard flour, made by Winter wheat, is better choice for making bread. Bread using hard flour produces better texture and taste. Luke warm water is added to the flour to make dough.
Yeast is a microscopic organism, the size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide. It is also easy to use. Powered yeast needs only be dissolved in water to be used instantly. Yeast works best in the presence of sugar and warmth.
Besides, encouraging yeast to grow quickly in the dough, sugar is added to give flour to the bread. Salt is added for the same purpose, to make the bread taste nice. However, it has the reverse effect on yeast, unlike sugar. The next ingredient is oil, olive oil, com oil, peanut oil and butter. It is essential for making the bread tender. After mixing with all these ingredients, the flour are hard beaten before sent to the oven.

Teks di atas berisi tentang proses pembuatan roti.

Coba bandingkan dengan contoh teks procedure berikut ini:
Recipe for French Toast

You are going to need:

4 pieces of bread
1 spoon of sugar
2 eggs
A quarter of a cup of milk
Butter
Pan
Fork
Bowl

Before you start to cook, you have to read the recipe.
Now you can get ready. After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter.
When everything is ready, break the eggs, pour a quarter of the milk in the bowl, then add a small spoon of sugar. Mix the eggs, milk and sugar.
Next, put a piece of bread in the bowl with the eggs, milk and sugar. Turn over the bread.
Now, put some butter in the pan. Turn on the stove. When the pan is hot, take the bread out of the bowl and put it into the pan. After you cook one side of the bread, cook the other side. After you finish the first place of the bread, cook the other pieces. Now you have French toast!

Teks di atas menerangkan tata cara membuat roti panggang.

Well, kedua teks tersebut memang membahas tentang cara membuat roti. Namun kalau kalian perhatikan tata cara penulisannya berbeda. Teks yang pertama ditulis dengan menggunakan uraian kalimat yang disusun sedemikian ilmiah. Contohnya kalimat “Yeast is a microscopic organism, the size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide” (dilihat dari kata-katanya, kesannya science banget kan..) Teks yang kedua ditulis dengan menggunakan kalimat perintah atau instruksi. Contohnya pada kalimat “After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter”.

Lihat contoh lainnya di latihan ya..

PROCEDURE

Dear students…

Salah satu teks yang dipelajari di kelas X semester 1 adalah procedure. Kalian pasti punya barang-barang elektronik kan? Jika kalian amati, kalau kalian membeli handphone, pasti ada buku panduannya kan? Di dalam buku panduan tersebut berisi instruksi atau tata cara pengoperasian, contohnya: instruksi bagaimana mengirimkan pesan, megambil gambar, dan lain-lain. Kalian juga pernah membaca buku resep masakan kan? Nah, di dalam resep masakan ada petunjuk bagaimana cara memasak sesuatu. Contoh lainnya, dalam melakukan suatu permainan, pasti ada petunjuknya. Sekarang kalian sudah mengerti betapa seringnya kita menggunakan teks procedure dlam kegiatan sehari-hari. Oleh karena itu, kalian harus menguasai teks ini.

Social Function : Help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instruction or directions.
Text Organization:
1. Goal (The final purpose of doing the instructions)
2. Materials (Ingredients, utensils, equipments to do the instructions)
3. Steps (A set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)

Contoh teks procedure:

Recipe for French Toast

You are going to need:
4 pieces of bread
1 spoon of sugar
2 eggs
A quarter of a cup of milk
Butter
Pan
Fork
Bowl

Before you start to cook, you have to read the recipe.
Now you can get ready. After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter.
When everything is ready, break the eggs, pour a quarter of the milk in the bowl, then add a small spoon of sugar. Mix the eggs, milk and sugar.
Next, put a piece of bread in the bowl with the eggs, milk and sugar. Turn over the bread.
Now, put some butter in the pan. Turn on the stove. When the pan is hot, take the bread out of the bowl and put it into the pan. After you cook one side of the bread, cook the other side. After you finish the first place of the bread, cook the other pieces. Now you have French toast!

Sudah jelas kan…? Kalian bisa pelajari contoh soal lainnya yang juga ada di blog ini. See you then…

Expressing Encouragement

Read the dialogue expressing encouragement.

Mira: Hi, Lydia, what are you doing?
Lidya: I’m reading “Ketika Cinta Bertasbih” what a wonderful story!
Mira: Didn’t you read “Ayat-ayat Cinta” before?
Lidya: I love these stories. They are written by a marvelous writer.
Mira: I will fall asleep if I read those kinds of novels. I hate reading. Also, those books are too heavy for me to read.
Lidya: Come on, Mira…. You need to read. Maybe you should start reading novels with lighter subjects and language.
Mira: Is there any?
Lidya: Yes, of course. Why don’t you start reading some chicklit or teenlit? Theya re very popular right now. Try to read “Dealova” for a start.
Mira: Oh, yeah. That’s true. I want to read their novels.
Lidya: See, how you get interested in reading. Why don’t you just read about a subject that you like first?
Mira: Ha..ha..ha… all right. I will read some teenlit or chicklit for a start.

Do the exercise.
What do you think the following people are going to do?
1. What book is Lidya reading?
2. What kind of stories does Lidya like most?
3. Does Mira like book-reading?
4. What do the words “Come on Mira, you need to read” imply?
5. What do you know about chicklit and teenlit?
6. Have you ever read a chicklit or teenlit novel? If so, what is it?
7. Do you think Mira is aroused by Lidya’s encouragement? Why?
8. Can you mention some expressions of encouragement? What are they?

Make dialogues expressing encouragement based on the situations given.
1. Your sister fails in a writing competition. She is very upset. You try to cheer her up.
2. Your friend got a bad mark on English. He does not know how to tell about it to his parents. You encourage him to ask for a remedial test from his teacher first.
3. Your brother loses his friend’s book. He plans not to tell his friend about that and finds a reason for the lost. You try to forbid him and beg to tell his friend the truth.
4. Your friend wants to join you to go to a theatre. However, she is afraid that her parents will not allow her. You encourage her to talk to her parents and ask for permission.
5. Your friend is almost quitting a sport championship, as he thinks that his rivals seem too strong to be defeated. You encourage him just to go on.

By Ely Wulandari Maulana Posted in Class XII

Expressing Curiosity

Complete the dialogue with the expressions in below.

Is snoring harmful Mrs. Dian?
What do you mean by a deviated septum?
Mrs. Dian, may I ask you some questions?
Do you know what causes people to snore?

Rina: …..(1)
Mrs. Dian: What is it, dear?
Rina: It’s about my dad. Lately he has been snoring in his sleep. I can hear his snoring from my room. It is pretty loud. …..(2).
Mrs. Dian: Many things, Rina. People snore because they have allergies, catch a cold, or probably have a sinus infection. Also, if a person is overweight or drinks alcohol, they are most likely to snore in their sleep.
Rina: Well, my dad is not overweight and he doesn’t drink.
Mrs. Dian: Ha..ha..ha.. I do not say he drinks or being overweight. I was just telling you some of the reasons why people snore, Rina.
Rina: ….. (3)
Mrs. Dian: No, but only if the reasons are what I have mentioned before. It can be easily cured. But, I know there are people who have surgeries since they have a very deviated septum. It is not only to make them stop snoring but also to help them to breathe better.
Rina: ….. (4).
Mrs. Dian: It is a condition where the tissue and cartilage that separates the two nostrils in a person’s nose is crooked.
Rina: Oh, well. I should tell my dad to visit his doctor.
Mrs. Dian: You definitely should. Snoring is more a symptom than the actual diseases. Give my regards to your father, Rina. I hope he will feel better, soon.
Rina: Thank you, Mrs. Dian. Have a good day!

Questions:
1. What does Rina ask to Mrs. Dian?
2. According to Mrs. Dian, what causes people to snore?
3. Is Rina’s father a fat man?
4. What does Mrs. Dian’s words “What is it dear” imply?
5. What will Rina probably do net?

By Ely Wulandari Maulana Posted in Class XII