Narrative

NARRATIVE

Dear all…
Diantara 12 jenis teks yang dipelajari di tingkat menengah atas, Teks Narrative adalah jenis teks yang paling sering dipelajari. Setiap semester kalian pasti mendapatkan pelajaran tentang teks yang satu ini.
Teks Narrative kita kenal juga sebagai teks naratif dalam bahasa Indonesia. Hanya saja dalam bahasa Inggris, teks Narrative memiliki lingkup yang lebih sempit. Seperti kita tahu yang namanya teks naratif yang ada dalam pelajaran bahasa Indonesia itu adalah teks tentang cerita, baik itu cerita tentang pengalaman seseorang, cerita lucu, dongeng, mitos, legenda, fable, dll. Namun dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris contoh teks tersebut dibagi dalam Teks Narrative, Spoof, dan Recount. Misalnya saja kalau teks tentang pengalaman seseorang dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris disebut Recount, teks cerita yang lucu disebut Spoof. Nah.. kalau Narrative adalah teks yang berupa dongeng, mitos, legenda, fable, dll.
Namanya juga narrative atau cerita, teks Narrative adalah teks yang menceritakan sebuah kisah yang sudah terjadi di masa lampau. Makanya kata kerja yang digunakan menggunakan bentuk Past Form. Misalnya:
Long time ago, there lived a woman near the river.
Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up.

Example:
Text *1 (Fabel)
A group of frogs were travelling through the woods, and two of them fell into a deep pit. When the other frogs saw how deep the pit was, they told the two frogs that they were as good as dead. The two frogs ignored the comments and tried to jump up out of the pit with all their might. The other frogs kept telling them to stop, that they were as good as dead.
Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up. He fell down and died.
The other frog continued to jump as hard as he could. Once again, the crowd of frogs yelled at him to stop the pain and just die. He jumped even harder and finally made it out.
When he got out, the other frogs said, “Did you not hear us?” The frog explained to them that he was deaf. He thought they were encouraging him the entire time.

Note: Fabel menceritakan kisah yang diperankan oleh hewan di mana kita bisa mendapatkan pesan moral dalam cerita tersebut yaitu ‘There is power of life and death in the tongue’.

Text *2 (Myth)
Once upon a time in the heavens the Batara Guru commanded all the gods and goddesses to contribute their power in order to build a new palace. Anybody who disobeyed this commandment would lose his or her head.
Upon hearing the Batara Guru’’s commandment, one of the gods, Anta, was very anxious. He didn’t have arms or legs and he wasn’t sure how he could possibly do the job. Anta was shaped as a snake and he couldn’t work. He sought advice from one of his friends but unfortunately his friend was also confused by Anta’s bad luck. Anta became very upset and cried.
As he was crying three teardrops fell to the ground. Amazingly, after touching the ground those teardrops became three eggs. His friend advised him to offer those eggs to the Batara Guru hoping that he would give a fair judgement.
With the three eggs in his mouth Anta went to the Batara Guru’s palace. On the way there he was approached by a black bird who asked him a question. He couldn’t answer because of the eggs in his mouth but the bird thought that Anta was being arrogant. It became furious and began to attack Anta and as a result one egg was shattered. Anta quickly tried to hide in the bushes but the bird was waiting for him.
The second attack left Anta with only one egg to offer to the Batara Guru.
Finally he arrived at the palace and offered his teardrop (in the shape of an egg) to the Batara Guru. The offer was accepted and the Batara Guru asked him to nest the egg until it hatched. Miraculously the egg hatched into a very beautiful girl. He gave the baby girl to the Batara Guru and his wife.
Nyi Pohi Sanghian Sri was her name and she grew up into a beautiful princess becoming more and more beautiful as the days passed by. As her beauty grew every man who saw her became attracted to her. Even her stepfather the Batara Guru started to feel an attraction toward her.
Seeing the Batara Guru’s new attitude toward Nyi Pohaci, all the gods became so worried about the situation that they conspired to separate Nyi Pohaci and the Batara Guru.
To keep the peace in the heavens and to maintain Nyi Pohaci’s good name, all the gods planned for her death. She was poisoned and her body buried on earth in a hidden place. But the graveyard was to hold a strange sign, for at the time of her burial, up grew a very useful plant that would forever benefit all human beings.
From her eyes grew the plant that is called padi (rice paddy).

Note: Mitos adalah teks yang menceritakan tentang terjadinya alam semesta, dunia, kisah para dewa, dll. Mitos di Indonesia biasanya menceritakan tentang terjadinya alam semesta, terjadinya susunan para dewa, terjadinya manusia pertama, dunia dewata, dan terjadinya makanan pokok. Mengenai mitos terjadinya padi, dikenal adanya Dewi Sri yang dianggap sebagai dewi padi orang Jawa.

Text *3 (Legend)
THE LEGEND OF CRYING STONES
A long long time ago in west Sumatra, Indonesia there was a fisherman and his wife who lived in a village by the sea. They had only one son. His name was Malin Kundang. They lived a simple life because as a fisherman the husband did not earn much money. Life got harder for Malin and his mother when his father did not return from the sea. Perhaps a storm had swollen his boat or maybe a big fish attacked him. Day by day passed and they kept waiting for him. But Malin’s father never returned. So little Malin had to help her mother sold cookies in a local market.
One day there was a big ship came to the beach of their village. It was a merchant ship. Everybody came to see it including Malin. He was very impressed by what he saw. Hoping to change his life he applied for a job and he was lucky. He was recruited by the ship owner. Then Malin left his mother and his village.
Many years gone by without any news from Malin. Malin’s mother missed him so much. Everyday she looked at the sea, hoping to see Malin came home. She always prayed to God that Malin become a successful merchant. Then God heard her pray.
On a beautiful day there was a big ship came to the beach. Many people came there to see it. Malin’s mother was expectant. She was sure that it was Malin’s ship. So she hurriedly came to the beach. When she was there she asked someone that she wanted to see the owner of the ship. Then a lovely lady met her. She wore a luxurious dress and jewellry. She was Malin’s wife.
‘Is Malin Kundang here?’
“Do you know Malin?”
‘Yes, of course I know him, he’s my son!’
‘But Malin told me he had no mother. She passed away a long time ago’.
Malin’s mother was very surprised to hear her answer. Then Malin came. Her wife asked him.
‘This poor woman said that you are his son’
Malin Kundang who had became a rich merchant and had a wife from a rich family was ashame with his mother who looked poor. He denied his humble background. So when her mother hugged him he repelled her.
‘Malin, my son, I miss you so much’.
‘Who are you? I am not your son’.
Malin’s mother was was crying. She was really irritated. Her heart was deeply hurt. Then she prayed to God. And she cursed Malin.
Suddenly there was a storm. The sea was raging. Big wave came and Malin’s ship was rushed ashore and destroyed. And Malin suddenly changed into a stone statue. Today people can see Malin’s statue in Teluk Bayur beach in west Sumatra. When there is a storm or rain people often hear someone’s crying. They believe it is Malin’s cry.

Note: Legenda adalah cerita yang dipercaya oleh sebagian masyarakat benar-benar terjadi.
legenda adalah dongeng tentang hal-hal yang berdasarkan sejarah yang mengandung sesuatu hal yang ajaib atau kejadian yang menandakan kesaktian.

Conclusion:
The social function of Narrative is to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
There are three kinds of Generic Structure:
1. Orientation (who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication (a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution (provide solution to the problem)
Language features:
1. Use of noun phrases (a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2. Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (In the garden, two days ago)
3. Use of simple past tense (He walked away from the village)
4. Use of action verbs (walked, slept)
5. Use of adjectives phrases (long black hair)

News Item

NEWS ITEM text adalah jenis teks yang menceritakan mengenai suatu kejadian. Teks listening news item banyak kita temui di radio dalam acara berita tentunya dan juga untuk teks reading news item kita bisa membacanya di koran. Selain itu jika kita sering menonton program berita di televisi, artinya kita juga sedang menonton teks news item.
News yang artinya berita, jenis teks ini memang bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi baik kepada pendengar, pembaca maupun penonton. Adapun susunan dari jenis teks ini adalah:
1. Newsworthy event (inti berita)
2. Background event (latar belakang berita)
3. Sources (sumber informasi)
Teks News Item adalah teks yang cukup mudah untuk dibedakan, contohnya:

Seven people were killed in a collision between a bus, a car and a truck on Jalan Sultan at 10:35 p.m. last night. The dead were all passengers of the car. The police believed the car had been trying to overtake the bus when it was struck by a truck coming from the opposite direction. The driver of the car might not be using his lights, as the truck driver said he did not see the car approaching.
The police said the car should not have tried to pass the bus, since overtaking is not allowed on Jalan Sultan. In addition, the police reported that the car, a small Japanese car, should not have been carrying more than five people. If the passengers had brought their identity cards, the police would have identified the names of the victims easily.

Dari teks tersebut di atas, disebutkan dalam paragraf pertama bahwa ada kecelakaan yang terjadi, yang merupakan inti berita. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyebab kecelakaan, yaitu karena “the car should not have tried to pass the bus, since overtaking is not allowed on Jalan Sultan”. Ciri lainnya adalah adanya sumber “The police said the car should not …”.

Contoh kedua:
Jakarta (JP). The number of people injured in the weekend earthquake in the Central Sulawesi capital of Palu reached 26. The earthquake, measuring 5,8 in the opened Ritcher Scale, also damaged or destroyed hundreds of buildings. So far no deaths have been reported.
“Only 3 of the 26 injured are still being treated at a government clinic. In the Sausu Trans village, the rest have returned home,” Mohammad Haerollah, an official of the Central Sulawesi Office of the Ministry of Social Services, told the Jakarta Post yesterday.
Officials at the meteorology and geophysics office in Palu said earlier that the epicenter was in the Gulf of Tomini, 32 kilometers east of Palu, at a depth of 32 kilometers. The office recorded 396 tremors between 5.30 p.m on Saturday and 12.00 a.m on Sunday. However, locals felt 47 of the tremors.
Antara News Agency reported on Saturday that most of the casualties were adults, injured by collapsing structures. The agency also said, that victims were mainly residents of the Sausu, Suli, Torono, and Malakosa villages.

Kalau kita analisa inti berita dari teks kedua adalah “The number of people injured in the weekend earthquake in the Central Sulawesi capital of Palu reached 26″. Latar belakangnya adalah “most of the casualties were adults, injured by collapsing structures” dan sumber beritanya adalah ” Officials at the meteorology and geophysics office in Palu said” “Antara News Agency reported”.

Genre: News Item
Social function: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic structure:
1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)
Language features:
 Information on the use of head lines.
 Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
 Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
 Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
 Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

Nah.. Kalian pasti sudah mengerti kan..

Recount Text…

Dear students…

Have you ever been to Bali? How did you go there? How long did you stay there? What did you do there? Explain clearly.

Well, to tell your experience is the purpose of recount. Jadi, kalau kalian ingin menceritakan pengalaman kalian kalian bisa menggunakan teks recount. Recount adalah jenis teks yang menceritakan pengalaman seseorang, selain itu juga teks yang menceritakan biografi seseorang secara detail.
Dalam recount ada tiga bagian penting. Yang pertama adalah Orientation, yaitu pendahuluan yang berupa pengenalan tokoh. Biasanya berupa who, when, and where (siapa, kapan, dan kapan suatu peristiwa terjadi. Yang kedua adalah event, yaitu kejadian atau peristiwa yang terjadi secara berurutan. Dan yang terkahir adalah Re-orientation, yaitu menjelaskan kesimpulan dari pengalaman yang diceritakan, apakah pengalaman tersebut menyedihkan, membahagiakan, atau mungkin menakutkan.

Contoh:

My Day at the Beach

(Orientaion)
Last week my friend and I were bored after three weeks of holidays, so we rode our bikes to Smith Beach, which is only five kilometres from where I live. When we arrived at the beach, we were surprised to see there was hardly anyone there. After having a quick dip in the ocean, which was really cold, we realized one reason there were not many people there. It was also quite windy.

(Events)
After we bought some hot chips at the takeaway store nearby, we rode our bikes down the beach for a while, on the hard, damp part of the sand. We had the wind behind us and, before we knew it, we were many miles down the beach. Before we made the long trip back, we decided to paddle our feet in the water for a while, and then sit down for a rest. While we were sitting on the beach, just chatting, it suddenly dawned on us that all the way back, we would be riding into the strong wind.

(Re-orientation)
When we finally made it back home, we were both totally exhausted! But we learned some good lessons that day.

12 Genres

12 GENRES:

1. Procedure
2. Recount
3. Narrative
4. Description
5. News Item
6. Report
7. Analytical Exposition
8. Spoof
9. Hortatory Exposition
10. Explanation
11. Discussion
12. Review

PROCEDURE

Social function: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.
Text organization:
1. Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction)
2. Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
3. Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)
Language features :
 Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..)
 Use of action verbs (turn, put)
 Use of connectives(first, then, finally)

RECOUNT

Social function: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)
Language features:
 Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she)
 Use of action verbs in past (went, studied)
 Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo)
 Use of adverbial phrases
 Use of adjectives

NARRATIVE

Social function: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)
Language features:
1. Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2. Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago)
3. Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village)
4. Use of action verbs ( walked, slept)
5. Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)

DESCRIPTION

Social Function: To describe a particular person, place or thing.
Generic Structure:
1. Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
2. Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)
Language features:
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of attributive and identifying processes
 Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups.
 Use of the Simple Present Tense

NEWS ITEM

Social function: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic structure:
1. News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
2. Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
3. Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)
Language features:
 Information on the use of head lines.
 Use of action verbs( hit, attack)
 Use of saying verbs( said, added, claimed)
 Use of passive sentences ( Aceh was hit by Tsunami in 2004)
 Use of adverbs in passive sentences (The victims were badly injured)

REPORT

Social function: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.
Text organization:
1. General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
2. Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).
Language features:
 Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer)
 Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg)
 Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun)
 Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen)
 Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position.)
2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence).
3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented).
Language features:
 Emotive words such as : alarmed, worried.
 Words that qualify statements such as: usual probably
 Words that link arguments such as: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore.
 Usually present tense
 Compound and complex sentences

SPOOF

Social function: To tell an event with a humorous twist.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened)
2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
3. Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)
Language features:
 Use of connectives (first, then, finally)
 Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago)
 Use of simple past tense (he walked away from the village)

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something should or should not be the case.
Generic structure:
1. Thesis ( stating an issue of concern)
2. Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation)
3. Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen)
Language features:
 Emotive words: alarmed, worried
 Words that qualify statements: usual probably
 Words that link arguments: firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore
 Usually present tense
 Compound and complex sentences
 Modal auxiliary: can, may, should, must

EXPLANATION
Social function: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
Generic structure:
1. A general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
3. Closing
Language features:
 Focus on generic, non-human participants.
 Use mainly of general and abstract nouns, action verbs, simple present tense, passive voice, conjunction of time and cause, noun phrases, complex sentences, and technical language.

DISCUSSION
Social function: To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (“for” points “against” points)
Generic structure:
1. Opening statement presenting the issue
2. Arguments or evidence for different points of view ( pros and cons)
3. Concluding recommendation.
Language features:
 Use of general nouns: alcohol, abortion, smoking, etc.
 Use of relating verbs: is, are, etc.
 Use of thinking verbs: think, feel, hope believe, etc.
 Use of additive connectives: addition, furthermore, besides, etc.
 Use of contrastive connectives: although, even, if, nevertheless, etc.
 Use of causal connectives: because, because of, etc.
 Use of modal auxiliary: must, should, etc.
 Use of adverbial manner: hopefully.

REVIEW
Social function: To critique an art work or event for a public audience.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.
Language features:
 Focus on specific participants
 Use of adjectives
 Use of long and complex clauses
 Use of metaphor
Reviews are used to summarize, analyze and respond to art works. They may include: movie, TV shows, books, plays, concerts, etc.

Review Text…

My dearest students…

Salah satu teks yang mudah dibedakan dibandingkan teks lainnya adalah teks review. Dalam bahasa Indonesia kalian pasti pernah denger atau baca resensi buku, film, atau kaset. Nah, dalam bahasa Inggris kalian akan mempelajari juga resensi tersebut, cuma.. namanya diganti jadi review. Mudah kan? Yup.. review teks adalah teks yang membahas mengenai resensi baik buku, film, kaset, dan sebagainya.

Genre: Review
Social function: To criticize an art work or event for a public audience.
Generic structure:
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.

Contoh:
Cinta (Dian Sastrowardoyo) is a beautiful, smart and confident seventeen year old. Born in a loving family, surrounded by caring and supporting friends. Cinta seems to have everything in the world. She has four best friends, Milly (Sissy Pricillia), Karmen (Adinia Wirasti), Alya (Ladya Cheryl), and Maura(Titi Kamal) who always protect her. She’s also the object of Borne’s affection, the most eligible boyfriend at school.
But things are starting to change when Cinta meets Rangga (Nicholas saputra), a cool and arrogant boy whose presence is never taken into account at school. The unpredictable character of Rangga has disturbed Cinta. It creates a new and unfamiliar sensation which leads Cinta into a new and strange world. The next thing she knows, she has fallen in love with someone who has a very different character and comes from a very different world.
Bit by bit, Cinta starts to change. She becomes a new person, a stranger to her friends and even to herself. She doesn’t understand what has happened, let alone her friends.

Contoh lagi ya…
kali ini ada judgementnya.

The story to ‘Kung Fu Panda’ is nothing really new, but it is told so well as to actually pack an emotional punch. And it never comes off as laughable, which in lesser hands could easily have happened. Speaking of laughs, there are many to be had here as well. ‘Kung Fu Panda’ works on just about every level a family movie can. The cast features Jack Black as Po the Panda. The furious five, the most feared group of warriors in all of China, consists of Tigress (Angelina Jolie), Monkey (Jackie Chan), Mantis (Sth Roger), Viper (Lucy Liu), and Crane (David Cross). Their master is Shifu (Dustin Hoffman), a fur ball creature who is a legendary teacher of Kung Fu. Escaped from prison and on hi way to claim the Dragon Scroll, which will make him the all powerful Dragon Warrior, is the good gone bad Tai Lung (Ian McShane). But first, he’ll have to muscle his way around 400 pounds of panda to get to it.
‘Kung Fu Pnada’ is a damn good time at the movies. This was the movie that Dreamworks Animation so desperately needed after the disappointing ‘Shrek The Third’. With gorgeous animation, spectacular action, a great cast and dramatic weight of an Akira Kurosawa film, Kung Fu Panda is one of the favourite movie of the year.

Explanation Text

Dear students…

Masih ingat teks procedure kan? Itu loh, teks yang membahas tentang resep masakan, tata cara pengoperasian suatu benda, atau aturan permainan. Trus.. apa ada hubungan antara teks procedure dengan teks explanation. Jawabnya pasti ada. Persamaannya yaitu keduanya membahas tentang cara-cara membuat sesuatu. Trus… Apa dong bedanya? Perbedaannya teks procedure lebih simple. Namun teks explanation lebih ilmiah.

Genre: Explanation
Social function: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
Generic structure:
1. A general statement to position the reader
2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
3. Closing

Contoh:
Bread
Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is not a complicated task. You must have an oven, water, sugar, salt, flour and yeast. The basic ingredient is flour comes from wheat. There are two kinds of flour which is soft, and the hard one.
Hard flour, made by Winter wheat, is better choice for making bread. Bread using hard flour produces better texture and taste. Luke warm water is added to the flour to make dough.
Yeast is a microscopic organism, the size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide. It is also easy to use. Powered yeast needs only be dissolved in water to be used instantly. Yeast works best in the presence of sugar and warmth.
Besides, encouraging yeast to grow quickly in the dough, sugar is added to give flour to the bread. Salt is added for the same purpose, to make the bread taste nice. However, it has the reverse effect on yeast, unlike sugar. The next ingredient is oil, olive oil, com oil, peanut oil and butter. It is essential for making the bread tender. After mixing with all these ingredients, the flour are hard beaten before sent to the oven.

Teks di atas berisi tentang proses pembuatan roti.

Coba bandingkan dengan contoh teks procedure berikut ini:
Recipe for French Toast

You are going to need:

4 pieces of bread
1 spoon of sugar
2 eggs
A quarter of a cup of milk
Butter
Pan
Fork
Bowl

Before you start to cook, you have to read the recipe.
Now you can get ready. After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter.
When everything is ready, break the eggs, pour a quarter of the milk in the bowl, then add a small spoon of sugar. Mix the eggs, milk and sugar.
Next, put a piece of bread in the bowl with the eggs, milk and sugar. Turn over the bread.
Now, put some butter in the pan. Turn on the stove. When the pan is hot, take the bread out of the bowl and put it into the pan. After you cook one side of the bread, cook the other side. After you finish the first place of the bread, cook the other pieces. Now you have French toast!

Teks di atas menerangkan tata cara membuat roti panggang.

Well, kedua teks tersebut memang membahas tentang cara membuat roti. Namun kalau kalian perhatikan tata cara penulisannya berbeda. Teks yang pertama ditulis dengan menggunakan uraian kalimat yang disusun sedemikian ilmiah. Contohnya kalimat “Yeast is a microscopic organism, the size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide” (dilihat dari kata-katanya, kesannya science banget kan..) Teks yang kedua ditulis dengan menggunakan kalimat perintah atau instruksi. Contohnya pada kalimat “After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter”.

Lihat contoh lainnya di latihan ya..

PROCEDURE

Dear students…

Salah satu teks yang dipelajari di kelas X semester 1 adalah procedure. Kalian pasti punya barang-barang elektronik kan? Jika kalian amati, kalau kalian membeli handphone, pasti ada buku panduannya kan? Di dalam buku panduan tersebut berisi instruksi atau tata cara pengoperasian, contohnya: instruksi bagaimana mengirimkan pesan, megambil gambar, dan lain-lain. Kalian juga pernah membaca buku resep masakan kan? Nah, di dalam resep masakan ada petunjuk bagaimana cara memasak sesuatu. Contoh lainnya, dalam melakukan suatu permainan, pasti ada petunjuknya. Sekarang kalian sudah mengerti betapa seringnya kita menggunakan teks procedure dlam kegiatan sehari-hari. Oleh karena itu, kalian harus menguasai teks ini.

Social Function : Help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instruction or directions.
Text Organization:
1. Goal (The final purpose of doing the instructions)
2. Materials (Ingredients, utensils, equipments to do the instructions)
3. Steps (A set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)

Contoh teks procedure:

Recipe for French Toast

You are going to need:
4 pieces of bread
1 spoon of sugar
2 eggs
A quarter of a cup of milk
Butter
Pan
Fork
Bowl

Before you start to cook, you have to read the recipe.
Now you can get ready. After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter.
When everything is ready, break the eggs, pour a quarter of the milk in the bowl, then add a small spoon of sugar. Mix the eggs, milk and sugar.
Next, put a piece of bread in the bowl with the eggs, milk and sugar. Turn over the bread.
Now, put some butter in the pan. Turn on the stove. When the pan is hot, take the bread out of the bowl and put it into the pan. After you cook one side of the bread, cook the other side. After you finish the first place of the bread, cook the other pieces. Now you have French toast!

Sudah jelas kan…? Kalian bisa pelajari contoh soal lainnya yang juga ada di blog ini. See you then…

Hortatory Exposition

Dear student…

Pada semester sebelumnya kalian pasti sudah mengenal jenis teks analytical expostion, di semester ini kalian akan mempelajari jenis teks exposition yang lainnya, yaitu hortatory exposition. Teks hortatory exposition berisi tentang teks yang mengemukakan alasan-alasan dengan tujuan untuk membujuk pendengar atau pembaca agar mau mengikuti apa yang dikemukakan penulis. Dalam pelajaran bahasa Indonesia kita tentu sudah mengenal teks persuasi, yang sama isinya dengan teks hortatory.

Teks hortatory di awali dengan Thesis, yaitu menuliskan opini penulis tentang suatu masalah. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan argumen, yaitu alasan-alasan yang mendukung pendapat penulis. Terakhir, menuliskan saran atau nasihat.

Contoh Teks hortatory dalam bentuk surat:

Dear Editor,

We are writing to complain about ads on TV. There are so many ads, especially during our favourite programmes. We think they should be stopped for a number of reasons.
First, ads are nuisance. They go on for a long time and there are so many. Sometimes there seems to be more ads than programmes.
Second, ads are bad influence on people. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beer, soft drink, candy and chips. And they make people want things they do not really need and can not.
Finally, the people who make ads have too much say in what programmes people watch. That is because they want to put all their ads on popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some programmes which are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads, even though those programmes may be someone’s favourite.
For those reasons, we think TV station should stop showing ads. They interrupt programmes. They are bad influences on people, and they are sometimes put a stop to people’s favourite shows. We are sick of ads, and now we mostly watch other channels.

David

Coba perhatikan teks di atas. Paragraf pertama berisi thesis, yang dilanjutkan dengan arguments (alasan) di paragraf 2, 3, dan 4. Paragraf ke 5 berisi tentang recommendation (saran). Isi dari paragraf terakhir inilah yang membedakan teks horatatory dan analytical.

Analytical VS Hortatory Exposition

Dear students…..

Bingung cara membedakan teks analytical exposition dan hortatory exposition? Don’t worry it’s so easy. Study the followings ya…

Sebelum kita mengetahui perbedaan teks analytical dan hortatory, mari kita mengenal persamaan dari kedua teks ini. Teks exposition dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu analytical exposition dan hortatory exposition. Exposition adalah jenis teks yang berisi tentang argumen-argumen tentang suatu topik. Dalam menulis teks ini, penulis perlu mencari sumber informasi agar argumen yang dikemukakan cukup kuat untuk mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar.
Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari kita bisa menemukan teks exposition dalam diskusi, pidato, iklan, surat, dsb. Contohnya, ada seorang teman yang merokok, kita bisa saja memberikan pendapat kita bahwa merokok itu tidak baik. So the thesis is “Smoking is not good for your health”. Kemudian kita akan memberikan alasan-alasan mengapa merokok itu tidak baik, so we tell the arguments that support our thesis. The social function of exposition is to persuade the reader or listener.

So the difference is…..
Study the text organization of analytical exposition below.
Ada 3 tahapan dalam teks analytical, yaitu:

  1. Thesis, berisi tentang suatu pernyataan tentang permasalahan tertentu. Biasanya diawali dengan kalimat I personally think, In my opinion, I believe, dll.
  2. Arguments, berisi tentang alasan-alasan untuk medukung Thesis yang dikemukakan. Diawali dengan kata, atau f rase First, Second, Furthermore, In addition, The last, dll.
  3. Reiteration, berisi tentang simpulan dari Thesis, dan Arguments yang dikemukakan. Kata-kata yang digunakan biasanya In my conclusion, Based on the arguments above, dll

Perbedaan Analytical Exposition dan Hortatory Exposition terletak di paragraf terakhir. Dalam penulisan Hortatory juga ada 3 bagian, yaitu:

  1. Thesis, berisi tentang suatu pernyataan tentang permasalahan tertentu. Biasanya diawali dengan kalimat I personally think, In my opinion, I believe, dll.
  2. Arguments, berisi tentang alasan-alasan untuk medukung Thesis yang dikemukakan. Diawali dengan kata, atau f rase First, Second, Furthermore, In addition, The last, dll.
  3. Recommendation, berisi tentang saran dari penulis atas Thesis dan Arguments yang dikemukakan. Biasanya ada kata-kata should, should not, ought to, ought not to, dll.

For example:

Text 1
Smoking in restaurants

Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.
Firstly, smoking in a restaurant is impolite. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.
Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.
Finally, smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere, not just in restaurants.
Therefore, smoking in restaurants is impolite, harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.

Text 2
Is it important to know what your kids are watching? Of course yes. Television can expose things you have tried to protect them from, especially violence, pornography, consumerism, etc.
A study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or bedtime often causes bedtime disruption, stress, and short of sleep duration.
Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood, and the possibility of being aggressive.
Meanwhile, many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.
Considering some facts mentioned above, protect your children with the following tips:
1. Limit television viewing to 1 – 2 hours each day
2. Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their bedrooms
3. Review the rating of TV shows that your children watch
4. Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening the show

Kedua teks di atas hampir sama, perbedaannya hanya ada di paragraf terakhir. Coba perhatikan paragraf terakhir pada teks 1 yang hanya berisi simpulan tidak ada saran. Memang ada kata “shouldn’t be allowed in the restaurants”, namun itu bukan saran melainkan penguatan dari thesis. Perhatikan lagi thesisnya “It must be allowed because…” Bandingkan dengan paragraf terakhir pada teks kedua yang berisi saran melalui empat tips yang harus dilakukan to protect the children. Clear right?

Spoof…

Dear student…

Teks bergenre spoof berisi tentang cerita lucu.  Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, you or your friends pasti suka mendengar cerita lucu, dalam bahasa Indonesia kita mengenal anekdot.  Biasanya kita menemukan teks spoof di koran, atau dari cerita teman sendiri.  Banyak siswa yang menyamakan cerita lucu dengan aktivitas yang bisa membuat orang tertawa seperti terpeleset di depan umum, salah kostum, dsb.  Menurut saya aktivitas yang saya sebutkan terakhir adalah aktivitas yang memalukan bukan lucu.  Lucu bukan berarti memalukan.  Dalam membuat teks spoof, kalian harus bisa bermain kata-kata sehingga bisa menghasilkan suatu cerita lucu.  I think spoof bisa diartikan sebagai suatu cerita yang unpredictable, dimana kejadian lucu itu sendiri disajikan hanya di akhir cerita.  Beda tentu jika kita menonton film lawak yang dari awal sampai akhir menyajikan peristiwa yang lucu.

Spoof di awali dengan ORIENTATION, yaitu pengenalan tokoh, tempat, dan waktu.  Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan EVENT, yaitu urutan kejadian secara detail.  Lalu di akhiri dengan TWIST, yaitu bagian terlucu.

Contoh:

Last week I took my five-year old son, Willy, to a musical instrument store in my hometown. I wanted to buy him a set of junior drum because his drum teacher advised me to buy him one. Willy likes listening to music very much. He also likes asking me everything he wants to know. Even his questions sometimes seem precocious for a boy of his age. He is very inquisitive.

We went there by car. On the way, we saw a policeman standing near a traffic light regulating the passing cars and other vehicles. He blew his whistle now and then.

Seeing the policeman blowing his whistle, Willy asked me at once, “Dad, why is the policeman using a whistle, not a drum?”

Hearing his unexpected question I answered reluctantly, “Because he is not Phil Collin!”