Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and ornament manufacturer. He was the inventor of dynamite. He also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannons and other ornaments. He held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. In his last will, he used his enormous fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic element nobelium was named after him. He was the third son of Immanuel Nobel and Andriette Ahlsell Nobel. Born in Stckholm on 21 October 1833, he went with my family to Saint Petersburg in 1842, where his father invented modern plywood. He studied chemistry with Professor Nikolay Nickolaevich Zinin. When he was 18, he went to the United States to study chemistry for four years and worked for a short period under John Ericsson, who designed the American Civil War ironclad USS Monitor.
Returning to Sweden, with his father after bankruptcy of his family business, he then devoted himself to the study of explosives, and especially to the save manufacture and use of nitroglycerine (discovered in 1847 by Acanio Sobrero, one of his fellow students under Theophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin. A big explosion occurred on 2 September 1864 at his factory in Heleneborg in Stockholm, killing five people. Among them was his younger brother, Emil.
The foundations of the Nobel Prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his last will, leaving much of his wealth for its establishment. Since 1901, the prize has honoured men and women for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for work in peace.
10. Where did Alfred Nobel work with John Ericsson?
a. In Sweden
b. In the USA
c. In Stockholm
d. In Heleneborg
e. In Saint Petersburg
11. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?
a. Alfred Nobel devoted himself to the study of chemistry
b. His success with explosive finally led to the 1864 tragedy
c. A big explosion in Heleneborg in Stockholm killed many people
d. A big explosion destroyed his factory in Heleneborg Stockholm
e. Alfred Nobel planned the safe manufacture and use of nitroglycerine
12. What was Bofor’s main business under Alfred Nobel?
a. It manufactured cannons and other ornaments
b. It designed the ironclad monitor
c. It produced iron and steel
d. It produced dynamite
e. It invented nobelium