The sense of taste

The sense of taste is one of a person’s five senses. We taste with the help of taste buds in the tongue.
There are four kinds of tastes: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All other tastes are just mixtures of two or more of these main types.
The surface of the tongue has more than fifteen thousand taste-buds (or cells). These are connected to the brain by special nerves which send the so-called ‘taste messages’.
When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the taste buds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. All these happen in just a few seconds.
There are four kinds of taste buds, each of which is sensitive to only a particular taste.
These four groups are located in different part of tongue.
The taste – buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along it sides. Sour tastes can be picked up only at the sides of the tongue. The taste – buds for the bitter tastes are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. There is taste – buds at the centre of the tongue.
The sense of smell and sight can affect taste. The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colors can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dull – colored, it will look tasty and may not taste good at all.
Very hot cold sensations can make the taste – buds insentive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no taste at all.

1. The purpose of the text is ……
a. to explain how we can taste any food in the mouth
b. to give a report about the sense of taste
c. to inform how important the tongue is
d. to describe the use of the tongue
e. to tell the taste of the food.

2. When we eat very hot or cold food ……..
a. the food will lose its taste
b. the food won’t smell good
c. the taste of the food increases
d. the taste – buds will sensitive
e. the taste – buds round the tip of the tongue

3. The senses of smell and sight …….
a. increase the taste of the food
b. affect the taste of the food
c. make food more delicious
d. make the food look good
e. make the food attractive

4. We can taste any kind of food because of ……
a. the good smell of food
b. the four main kinds of taste
c. the taste – buds in the tongue
d. the senses of smell and sight
e. the taste – buds round of the tip of the tongue

Advertisements

Gastritis

The stomach is the first stop in the process of food digestion. The inner walls of the stomach, also called stomach lining, are bathed in about a gallon of stomach acid and digestive enzymes.
Gastritis happens when the stomach lining is irritated, inflamed or inflected. Usually, a person with gastritis will feel some cramps and pains in the middle or left upper belly, just under the ribs. Other symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating and belching. A wound in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer and it caused more pain than ordinary gastritis. Blood may appear in vomit or stool. This loss of blood may cause anemia, which, will make the person feel weak, tired and dizzy. When there is an inflection, there usually is a fever.
It used to be thought that the causes of gastritis are spicy food, alcohol and lifestyle related factors like stress, along with long term some painkillers and anti inflammation drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen. But in the early eighties, a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori was found to be responsible for most cases of gastritis and gastric ulcer. These bacteria are not killed by stomach acid because they live within the gel like mucus membrane that protects the stomach from its own acid. They have also developed a clever mechanism to neutralize the acid that come in contact with, and release a by product of gases. These bacteria enter the body via contaminated food and water, but still can be eliminated with the right antibiotics.

18. Why is gastric ulcer different from gastritis?
A. Because it causes more pain than ordinary gastritis
B. Because it is not caused by Helicobacter pylori
C. Because it cannot be eliminated with the right antibiotics
D. Because it causes death
E. Because it doesn’t happen in the stomach

19. Which of the following things is analytically the cause of gastritis and gastric ulcer?
A. Spicy food
B. Alcohol
C. Helicobacter pylori
D. Aspirin
E. Ibuprofen

20. The text mostly tells us about …..
A. Food digestion
B. Stomach
C. Gastritis
D. The symptoms of gastritis
E. The cause of gastritis

21. “These bacteria enter the body via contaminated food and water, but still can be eliminated with the right antibiotics.”
The italic word can be replaced by ….
A. Through
B. Though
C. Thought
D. Thorough
E. Tough

22. The communicative purpose of the text is ….
A. To describe stomach
B. To retell the process of food digestion
C. To persuade the readers to check their health
D. To inform the readers about gastritis
E. To tell an amusing experience

Bread

Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is not a complicated task. You must have an oven, water, sugar, salt, flour and yeast. The basic ingredient is flour comes from wheat. There are two kinds of flour which is soft, and the hard one.
Hard flour, made by Winter wheat, is better choice for making bread. Bread using hard flour produces better texture and taste. Luke warm water is added to the flour to make dough.
Yeast is a microscopic organism, the size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide. It is also easy to use. Powered yeast needs only be dissolved in water to be used instantly. Yeast works best in the presence of sugar and warmth.
Besides, encouraging yeast to grow quickly in the dough, sugar is added to give flour to the bread. Salt is added for the same purpose, to make the bread taste nice. However, it has the reverse effect on yeast, unlike sugar. The next ingredient is oil, olive oil, com oil, peanut oil and butter. It is essential for making the bread tender. After mixing with all these ingredients, the flour are hard beaten before sent to the oven.

1. Which flour is made by Winter wheat?
a. Soft flour is made by Winter wheat
b. Winter wheat means better bread
c. Winter wheat tastes better
d. Winter wheat is the basic ingredient
e. Hard flour is made by winter wheat

2. What does powered yeast refer to?
a. Yeast that is capable of producing carbon dioxide
b. Yeast a microscopic organism
c. Yeast that can be dissolved in water
d. Yeast that cannot mix with sugar
e. An organism that comes from wheat

3. Which wheat is tastier?
a. Soft wheat is tastier
b. Wheat mixed with salt and sugar tastes better
c. The wheat that produces flour tastes better
d. Winter wheat tastes better
e. Hard bread made by wheat is tastier

4. Which of the statement is true?
a. Had water is added to the flour to make dough
b. Yeast is very impressive in size
c. Yeast works worst n the presence of sugar and warmth
d. Yeast is microscopic organism
e. Bread using soft flour makes better texture and taste

5. What is the communicative purpose of the text above?
a. The process of making a proper bread
b. How to select correct wheat
c. Tell us the important of bread
d. To tell us how easy to make bread
e. To tell us why bread is served as breakfast

6. What is the kind of this text?
a. Narrative text
b. Report text
c. Discussion text
d. Explanation text
e. Received text

7. What form of verb does the text mostly use?
a. Simple present tense
b. Past tense
c. Present perfect tense
d. Adverb
e. Noun

8. “However, it has the reverse effect on yeast, unlike sugar” ( paragraph 4) the word “reverse” means ……
a. Turn over
b. In this context it means opposite
c. Taking a ‘U’ turn
d. Change of direction
e. Reverse means going backward

Green house

When fossil fuels, or other fuels, such as wood or peat, which contain carbon are burned, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. Vehicles also give out, and so add, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
The Earth’s atmosphere allows most of the Sun’s rays to pass through it to heat the Earth’s surface. The Earth reflects much of the heat energy back into the atmosphere, but much of this reflected radiation cannot escape because gases such as carbon dioxide absorb it. They grow warm and send heat radiation back to Earth. This is the greenhouse effect. Many scientists think that the greenhouse effect may change the climate, over the next 100 years or so. One consequence of soalled “global warming” resulting from the greenhouse effect could be melting of the polar ice – caps. This in turn, could lead to a rise in sea level which could flood large areas of highly populated coastal land.
If carbon dioxide proves to be as harmful as thought. In order to reduce carbon dioxide levels we need to reduce the amounts of carbon-rich fuels burned.

1. What is emitted out when fuels which contain carbon are burned?
a. Carbon dioxide.
b. Wood.
c. Peat.
a. Radiation.

2. What effect does carbon dioxide have on the atmosphere?
a. It makes the atmosphere darker to long-wave radiation.
b. It makes the atmosphere allow most of the Sun’s rays to pass through.
c. It makes the atmosphere allow most of the Sun’s rays to pass through it to heat the Earth’s surface.
d. It makes the atmosphere become warmer.

3. The Earth reflects much of the heat energy back into the atmosphere ….
What is the Indonesian equivalent of the italicized word?
a. Menyerap.
b. Memancarkan.
c. Mencerminkan.
d. Memantulkan.

4. What causes the Earth to become warmer?
a. The Sun’s rays reflected by the Earth into the atmosphere.
b. The heat radiation sent back to Earth by gases that grow warm.
c. Reflected radiation that escapes into the atmosphere.
d. The burning of wood or peat.

5. What will happen if the sea level rises?
a. The polar ice will melt and make the sea get cooler.
b. Some large areas of coastal land will be inundated.
c. Some large areas of coastal land will be dried up.
d. The surface of the Earth will be flooded with water.

Recycling

Recycling is a collection, processing, and reuse of materials that would otherwise be thrown away. Materials ranging from precious metals to broken glass, from old newspapers to plastic spoons, can be recycled. The recycling process reclaims the original material and uses it in new products.
In general, using recycled materials to make new products costs less and requires less energy than using new materials. Recycling can also reduce pollution, either by reducing the demand for high-pollution alternatives or by minimizing the amount of pollution produced during the manufacturing process.
Paper products that can be recycled include cardboard containers, wrapping paper, and office paper. The most commonly recycled paper product is newsprint. In newspaper recycling, old newspapers are collected and searched for contaminants such as plastic bags and aluminum foil. The paper goes to a processing plant where it is mixed with hot water and turned into pulp in a machine that works much like a big kitchen blender. The pulp is screened and filtered to remove smaller contaminants. The pulp then goes to a large vat where the ink separates from the paper fibers and fl oats to the surface. The ink is skimmed off, dried and reused as ink or burned as boiler fuel. The cleaned pulp is mixed with new wood fibers to be made into paper again.
Experts estimate the average office worker generates about 5 kg of wastepaper per month. Every ton of paper that is recycled saves about 1.4 cu m (about 50 cu ft) of landfill space. One ton of recycled paper saves 17 pulpwood trees (trees used to produce paper).

1. The following things can be recycled, EXCEPT….
a. precious metals
b. broken glass
c. old newspapers
d. plastic spoons
e. fresh vegetables and fruits

2. Which of the following is NOT the benefit of recycling?
a. It costs much money for the process of recycling
b. It costs less to make new products.
c. It requires less energy.
d. It can reduce pollution.
e. It reduces the demand for high-pollution alternatives.

3. What is the third step of recycling paper products?
a. Collect and search for contaminants such as plastic bags and aluminium foil.
b. Mix the paper with hot water in a blender which turns it into pulp.
c. Screen and filter the pulp to remove smaller contaminants.
d. Put the pulp to a large vat to separate the ink from the paper fibres.
e. Mix the pulp with new wood fibres to be made into paper again.

4. We can make use of the ink after being separated from the paper fibres by doing the followings, EXCEPT….
a. Skim it off.
b. Dry it.
c. Reuse as ink.
d. Burn as boiler fuel.
e. Mix it with the pulp.

Making Paper from Woodchips

Making Paper from Woodchips

Wood chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.
The wood chipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.
Next the tops and branches of the tress are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.
At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called wood chips.
The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage, they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.
The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.
Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.

1. What is the type of the text?
a. Explanation
b. Procedure
c. Exposition
d. Narrative
e. Spoof

2. The text describe the process of ……
a. cutting down the forest
b. producing woodchips
c. wood chipping
d. paper making
e. reforestation

3. What do the mill workers do with the logs?
a. They export the woodchips
b. They cut them into the pieces
c. They rolled out the paper
d. They remove the bark
e. They screen the logs

4. “ At this stage, they are either exported in this form or …” (paragraph 2)
The underlined words refer to ……
a. logs
b. pulp
c. processed pulp
d. new woodchips
e. clear woodchips

5. “ The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.” (paragraph 2).
In other words, they are …..
a. moved
b. cleaned
c. repaired
d. removed
e. processed

Facsimile

Facsimile, often called fax, is away of transmitting texts and pictures over telephone lines. News services often use facsimile to send news, stories, and photographs to newspaper and television stations. Banks, law firms and other businesses use facsimile to send copies of document, to clients and other organization.
A device called a facsimile machine is used for transmitting and receiving images. Facsimile machines resemble small photocopiers. However, they are equipped with a telephone or are connected to one. To send a document, the user inserts it into the machine and dials the telephone number of the receiving fax machine. After the connection is made, an electronic scanner on the transmitting machine moves across the page and converts the image a set of electric signals. These signals travel over the telephone line to the receiving fax machine. That machine converts the electric signals back into an image of the original document and then prints a copy.
Some business people use small desktop fax machines or portable models at home or when they travel. A personal computer can also be used to send and receive documents if it is equipped with a special electronic circuit board called a fax board.

1. What is the main information in the second paragraph?
A. A facsimile machine is a small photocopier
B. A facsimile machine is equipped with a telephone to transmit images
C. A facsimile machine transmits and receives images
D. A facsimile machine converts the electric signals back into an image
E. A facsimile machine sends documents to distant places

2. What do you call the device in the facsimile machine that converts the image of the document into a set of electric signals?
A. A copier
B. A converter
C. A telephone
D. An electronic scanner
E. A transmitting machine

3. What do you need to enable your computer to send and receive documents like a fax?
A. A fax board
B. A transmitter
C. A signal converter
D. An electronic circuit
E. An electronic scanner

4. “Facsimile, often called fax, is a way of transmitting texts and pictures over telephone lines.” ( Paragraph 1)
The underlined word may be replaced by …..
A. Sending
B. Changing
C. Processing
D. Translating
E. Connecting

Bees

People have always been interested in bees. This interest may have begun with the honey bees make. In fact, archeologists have found evidence that people have been eating honey for many thousands years. In the more recent past, people were interested in the way bees made honey. They admired the way bees seemed to work so hard. Some languages even developed expressions about people working like bees. In English, for example, we talk about a “busy bees”. Now scientists have a new reason to be interested in bees. They have discovered that bees are able to communicate with each other. Research has revealed some surprising facts about this, but there are still many mysteries.
Communication is also possible among bees through their sense of smell. A group of bees, called a colony, uses smell to protect itself from other bees. This is possible because all the bees in a colony have a common smell. This smell acts like a chemical signal. It warns the group of bees when a bee from a different colony is near. This way, bees from outside can not enter and disturb a hive (the bee colony’s home). If outsiders try to enter, the bees of that colony will smell it and attack it.

1. What is the purpose of the text especially on first paragraph?
A.Tell past events
B.Describe about people interest in bees
C. Inform about the making of honey
D. Report about how bees work
E. Amuse the reader

2. How long have the people consumed the bee’s honey?
A. Hundred years
B. Thousands years
C. In recent years
D. Lately
E. For the past few years

3. How do the bees communicate among each other?
A. They use sense of smell
B. They use a colony
C. They use chemical signal
D. By their hive
E. By keeping their hive

4. How does bee’s sense of smell work?
A. as warning
B. attacking tool
C. to protect itself
D. to protect their hive
E. it just like a chemical signal

Viruses

Viruses like influenza and those that cause the common cold (there are a couple of hundred of them) have an incubation period once get into your body. The virus gets into a group of healthy cells and then goes about requisitioning their survival apparatus from the inside. During this incubation period, while the virus is multiplying inside those infected cells, you have no symptoms – no sore throat, no runny nose, no achy muscles – and no virus spreading like wildfire throughout your body so that every drop of saliva or mucous you produce contains it. And that’s how a virus spreads from one person to another; By a healthy person coming into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person, whether those fluids are airborne (as from a sneeze) or left on a doorknob by a sick person who just wiped his nose. So if you have no symptoms yet, it’s a lot less likely that you’re going to spread the virus to another person.
Once the cells that have been taken over by the virus start to die, that’s when all hell breaks loose. Here’s when you start having symptoms, and you start spreading it to everyone you know if you are not careful. Some of those symptoms are caused by the virus itself (runny nose and sore throat, for example), and others are caused by your immune system (fever and exhaustion, for throughout your body, your immune system recognizes that something is wrong and begins its counterattack. All of this can take days to happen. With the flu in particular, the time between exposure and the onset of symptoms is usually between one and four days.
So, when are you contagious? Most experts agree that adults with a cold or the flu start being contagious period then last five to seven days into the illness. For children, the contagious period for the flu last up to two weeks after they start feeling sick, even if they start feeling better before that. The contagious period for a cold lasts about three to four days into the illness. As a general rule, people with a cold are most contagious about three days after their initial exposure to the virus.

1. The topic of the text is …..
A. The most contagious periods of colds and flu
B. The incubation period of colds and flu viruses
C. How to prevent colds and flu viruses from spreading
D. The symptoms of people who are suffering from colds and flu
E. Different types of viruses

16. It can be inferred from the passage that …..
A. Virus can spread only by air
B. Symptoms are not caused by viruses
C. People start showing symptoms when viruses are multiplying inside the infected cells
D. Flu and common cold are caused by the same virus
E. Influenza and cold differ in the length of their contagious time

17. Below are the efforts to prevent flu and cold viruses from spreading EXCEPT ….
A. Pick up used tissue with your bare hands
B. Always wash your hands after you wipe your runny nose
C. Always cover your nose while sneezing with a tissue or handkerchief
D. It is better to stay at home during the contagious period if you are infected
E. Put the tissue that you have used after sneezing or wiping your nose in the rubbish bin

18. According to the text, after the viruses have killed the infected cells and start to infect other healthy cells ……
A. This is the best time to take some medicine
B. Human immune system work to protect the healthy cells
C. It is less likely to spread the disease to other people
D. It is better to have plenty of rest and drink a lot of water
E. It is the time when you get fever and achy muscles

19. ‘Onset’ in line has the same meaning as ….
A. Location
B. Beginning
C. Ending
D. Period
E. Restore to health

TSUNAMIS

TSUNAMIS

A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or in the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating.
The term of tsunami comes from the Japanese language meaning harbour (tsu) and wave (nami). Although in Japanese tsunami is used for both singular and plural, in English “tsunamis” is well-established as the plural. The term was created by fisherman who returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbour devastated, although they had not been aware of any wave in the open water. A tsunami is not a sub-surface event in the deep ocean; it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore, a very long wavelength (often hundreds kilometers long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing “hump” in the ocean.
Tsunamis have been historically referred to as “tidal waves” because as they approach land they take on the characteristics of a violent onrushing tide rather than the sort of cresting waves that are formed by wind action upon the ocean (with which people are more familiar). However, since they are not related to tides, the term is considered misleading and its usage is discouraged by oceanographers.

1. The writer wrote the text ……..
A. To entertain readers
B. To describe a tsunami
C. To argue against a tsunami
D. To tell funny things about tsunami
E. To persuade readers to prevent a tsunami

2. Waves which are created by a tsunami are very ……
A. Tiny
B. Long
C. Strong
D. Exciting
E. Peculiar extraordinary

3. “…… it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore …….” (par.2)
Which is the closest meaning to the underlined word?
A. Only
B. Rarely
C. Really
D. Actually
E. Obviously

4. Which doesn’t have the potential to generate tsunami?
A. Earthquakes
B. Volcanic eruptions
C. Large meteorite impacts
D. Landslides
E. Harbours

5. ….. when water in lake or in the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. The underlined word means …..
A. Fast
B. Continuously
C. Generally
D. Gradually
E. Slowly